The Clare Spark Blog

July 20, 2010

German Romantic predecessors to multiculturalism

Bottoms-Up !

The German Romantics and their descendants have co-opted radical Enlightenment concepts (tolerance, the rejection of innate ideas and fallen flesh as determinants of “human nature,” the cultural biases of the participant-observer) and practices (introspection, scientific materialism, the comparative history and analysis of political and economic institutions). These “enlightened” concepts and practices were then turned against “the lower orders.” For instance, the social psychology of “progressivism” transforms the common-sense perception of objective social conflicts and clashing interests into personal, anti-social symptoms of “xenophobia,” “prejudice” or “scapegoating,” i.e., distorted vision of “the Other.” Insofar as they are conservative Freudians and Jungians, the progressive psychologists attribute negative “stereotypes” to individual weakness and social irresponsibility: Entirely inner conflicts (Oedipal or pre-Oedipal in origin) are projected onto the outer world; this social world could be made harmonious through “integration”; i.e., discreet purges aka correct adjustments or through the emotionally mature recourse to administrative remedies. In their moralistic, muckraking diagnostics it is possible to construct an entire Weltanschauung in which an entitity called “the Jews” possesses the god-like omnipotence attributed by Christians to the Devil; all modern social movements that question religious authority in favor of empirical investigation of both the natural world and the structures and practices of human institutions will be characterized as false friends to the people, for this world is controlled by our Great Adversary, the archetypal confidence-man represented by the power of filthy lucre aka “finance capital.”

It is my argument that the new social history, like “cultural history” has an antisemitic sub-text that few cared to identify after World War II. But before the murder of European Jewry, writers were less tactful. J. Mace Andress was head of the Boston Normal School; his lucid book of 1916 tracing the lineage from Herder to Franz Boas introduced this unknown forefather to fellow teacher-trainers. [ Johann Gottfried Herder as an Educator (New York: G.E. Stechert, 1916) It can be read online. ]

The Andress tolerance broke down, however, when giving advice about Bible appreciation: “The Bible Herder regarded as the deepest source of wisdom, and the biblical stories he considered as important means toward education. In the handling of the Bible stories he recommended the greatest care. All that was essentially Jewish, not Christian, should be avoided” (168). Like moderates before him, Andress was looking to moral reform as the basis for socially responsible capitalism; for a progressivism that restored the hierarchical organic social relations of the Middle Ages into micro-units, relieving local élites of competing loyalty to either the universal Catholic Church (directed from Rome) or to the universal brotherhood preached by the “Hebraic” Reformation. Andress’ rhetoric suggests that the essentially Jewish character (God as Devil) is construed as rationalism: “[The rationalist type] of philosophy had made a conquest of the intellectual world, and with self-complacency, looked upon its work and called it good. The millennium of life was a paradise guided solely by reason; that was sufficient unto itself for everybody at any time and under every condition. Reason was regarded as the only measure of the values of life. With contempt it turned to the past to see mirrored there the gloom, fanaticism, and ignorance due to irrationalism! This brand of philosophy was quite important, thoroughly dogmatic, and quite unsympathetic with historical thought. The world was to be created anew by man’s power of reason” (52). Herder, like his teacher Hamann, grasped the superior power of faith and spirit; these would unify humanity against the divisiveness imposed by [modern Jews, scientists, radical puritans] (53). Titans need not be Prometheans; ordinary folk, resisting the syren call of democratic citizenship could become gods. Here are some telling excerpts from his book:

[Andress:] Kant gave to the world…a new sense of spiritual freedom. He taught that the individual is able to build his own world. No matter what your condition in life, your world may become glorious if only you will make it so. “Its spirituality is your own creation, or else is nothing. Awake, arise, be willing, endure, struggle, defy evil, cleave to good, strive, be strenuous, be devoted, throw into the face of evil and depression your brave cry of resistance, and then this dark universe of destiny will glow with a divine light. For you have no relations with the eternal world save such as you make for yourself.” This sort of philosophy was a call to the individual to arise to self-mastery and self-realization. Kant believed that the world is not beyond us but is the deepest truth within us. As we master this truth we conquer the discordant tendencies of our own lives…With Kant [German idealism] said the world is indeed the world as built by self-consciousness; but the real world is the world of the genius, the poet, the artist. It refused to interpret the world according to reason or the moral law, but in terms of sentiment, emotion, and heart longings. Romanticism found its chief interest in man’s wealth of divine emotions (Andress, 29-30).

[Andress:] We have noted again and again [Herder’s] opposition to the rationalist philosopher. Men like Rousseau and Hamann had already led the way, but it was Herder who first put the reactionary movement on a firm basis and gave it solidity. This was not a result merely of his revulsion of feeling, but because he penetrated beyond to a conception of human life as an organic whole. He was the first to adopt the historical method in the effort to find meaning in the world as a whole. Bossert said of Herder that he “created the historical method which revived the study of language, literature and religion, and he applied it with such authority and such competence that he rendered for a long time any other method impossible”…In his search for origins both in science and history he foreshadowed the progress of culture for a century after his time…It is no exaggeration to say that Herder foreshadowed the modern trend in psychology…His method, as might be expected, is the genetic….(Andress, 278, 279).

[Andress:] Herder’s service to religion was monumental. Here again we find him a foe of the Aufklärung, which would make everything amenable to common understanding, which attempted to force truth into the narrow moulds of intellectualism. As a follower of Rousseau and Hamann, Herder entertained a profound contempt for such rationalistic procedure. He was not impressed by the merely traditional, the dogmas, the artificiality of churches. He tried to find the genuine religious feelings of the people which had become largely suppressed by rules and dogma. As a student of civilization, he went back to the study of the ancient and primitive religions with enthusiasm, intelligence and insight. Although often reflecting the spirit of traditionalism and the spirit of the past, he was remarkably open minded. The bigot finds nothing to praise in religions outside his own; but Herder was superior to the littleness of mind often characteristic of the theologian (Andress, 283-84).

[Andress:] When we stop to think that the science of sociology was unknown in the eighteenth century, we begin to realize how penetrating was Herder’s insight. He was mindful of the progress of the individual, his enthusiasm for individuality and his rebellion against formalism did not prevent his understanding the real significance of the past, the relation of the individual to the group, and the contribution of society as a whole to culture. In a broad way Herder in his philosophy of culture lays the foundation for a race pedagogy, which stated tersely would read: in the teaching of a people we should build upon their culture not try to destroy it. The world-wide efforts to convert primitive peoples to Christianity, the forcing of a foreign culture upon an alien conquered people, are examples of the violation of this pedagogy. The social philosophy of Herder suggests the beginnings of sociology and social psychology and the recognition of the social aspects of education and culture. Again we find Herder the Bahnbrecher, one standing on the tiptoe of expectancy for the gates of the nineteenth century to swing wide open, a blazer of new trails for humanity (Andress, 298).

A Change of Spectacles. This is the Herder/Andress argument: While class hierarchies and national character are natural, (Jewish) bigotry is not. The (Jewishly inspired) scientific revolution plainly ruptures traditional social bonds; like the national chauvinism which would impose “reason and the moral law” on “alien” cultures, such artifice could only be catastrophic. German Romanticism corrects the death-ray vision of the new science: in the process of self-cultivation or Bildung, sub-divided humanity, like Leibnitz’s monads, are properly seen as units in a grand, gradually evolving whole, judenrein, hence moving onward and upward toward God-like perfection, harmony and equilibrium, each living out its unique potential in the universal Becoming (Werden). Explicating the elusive concept of Bildung, the distinguished and revered cultural historian George L. Mosse approvingly cited Herder: “Man must grow like a plant, as Johann Gottfried von Herder put it, striving to unfold his personality until he becomes a harmonious, autonomous individual engaged in a continual quest for knowledge.” Although the German Romantics founded the disciplines of comparative literature, comparative religion, cultural anthropology, social psychology and “modern race pedagogy,” to insist on universal ethical rules or standards or analytic tools would violate the tenets of their “anti-élitist” progressive movement. For the “cultural materialists” among them “class” is a “socially constructed” category, with no more objectivity in the real world than ugly images of race; for these irrationalists, the inductive scientific method and the monolithic, hegemonic Enlightenment (“the West” as personified in comic-book characters like Fritz Lang’s Dr. Mabuse) remain the sources of iconoclasm and genocidal fascist bureaucracies—the inevitable products of levelling, totalitarian “mass politics” and a discredited Whiggish, covertly imperialist “master narrative.”

The search for origins, the “genetic” method of their “new historicism,” exists solely to delegitimate the claims of science for universal validity; new historicists have mocked the “plodding bourgeois virtues” that “downplay” “character, individuality and point-of-view.” The searching spotlights of irrationalists, however, cannot be turned upon themselves lest their own schematic diagnostics be relativized as tendentious pronouncements from upper-class controlled institutions; hence the widespread antagonism to Freudian introspection or any declaration of personal interest in the outcomes of their own assertions (aka ‘investigations’). Such tactful silences would be intolerable if practiced by the scientists who, it is claimed by the new historicists, are inevitably bought and sold by the Big Money. Hitler, a self-styled critical, independent analyst, said the same about “Jewish Bolshevism” as a front for finance capital.
An orgy of obscurantism. This website retrieves the history of the antifascist “liberals” who have shaped social psychology in the twentieth century, and who have not been able to explain mass death in the past, nor to prevent its recurrence in the present. It has dealt with institutional sources of dead-end politics and other social pathologies, including primitivism, apathy, and sadomasochism. I have sometimes included artworks that show the difficulties in achieving autonomy (the precondition for democratic participation) in societies that refuse appropriate structural transformation while simultaneously promoting “freedom,” “democracy,” and “critical thought.” Racism, sexism, artistic censorship, anti-Semitism, neo-Nazism, family violence, and elitism as they have been defined in today’s social movements are re-assessed in this political and institutional context. Artists’ depictions of modernity and its alleged social pathologies are compared to those of leading journalists and academics treating the same issues.

We may observe that petit-bourgeois intellectuals–the sometimes defiant, sometimes conforming middle-managers who occupy the teaching and healing professions and who create media–have, owing to class origin, education, allegiance and interest, been structurally driven to identify with a declining “aristocracy.” The middle-managers tend to reject Eros (the life-affirming rainbow sighted by attractive popular democratic movements), for Thanatos (the bleak response of the still-controlling old order looking into a future in which it, the owning-class, could be dispossessed)–hence the flight of middle-management to sadomasochistic social relations as self-discipline or “adjustment” to élite-controlled, pseudo-democratic, unevenly emancipated institutions. For some progressives, pain melts away as they rosily merge into the All. To a rationalist like myself, amazed but not intimidated by the power of irrational psychological processes, the progressives are a disaster: in their “radical” and “pacifist” but finally völkisch and reactionary ideology there can be no unified social action, no self-management or informed consent to management by experts, no concept of the independent artist, scientist, or any (relatively) autonomous, dissenting individual, no constructively critical intellectual  meandering purposefully toward either provisional or solid conclusions. [For a related blog see]


  1. […] American progressives also admired Herder as well as his fellow German Romantics. Woodrow Wilson’s internationalism can be seen as indebted to Herder and his counter-Enlightenment followers. (The German Enlightenment—Aufklärung—–cannot be conflated with such developments as the scientific revolution of the 17th century. Aufklärung was rather a reactionary move by organic conservatives, and it is the source of multiculturalism and one type of internationalism in the early 20th century. For more on Herder’s nationalism and his followers, see For the introduction of German Romanticism in progressive America, see […]

    Pingback by German Romanticism, Hitler, Herder, and multiculturalism | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — November 25, 2016 @ 8:57 pm | Reply

  2. […] to the “materialism” of science and Enlightenment as understood in 18th Century France. (See, and […]

    Pingback by Multiculturalism vs. [Yid] Red spies: which agitates the Right? | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — April 24, 2015 @ 7:57 pm | Reply

  3. […] the “ethno-pluralists” of the New Deal in the 1930s and 1940s, trying to explain Nazism. (See, and […]

    Pingback by “National character”: does it exist? | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — July 20, 2014 @ 7:34 pm | Reply

  4. […] of Nazism and the crypto-racism of multiculturalism. (On the legacy of German Romanticism see For instance, the German aristocrat Friedrich Meinecke is cited favorably in Kedourie, but […]

    Pingback by Disastrous nationalisms: the Kedourie version | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — April 9, 2014 @ 8:05 pm | Reply

  5. Clare Spark traces the origins of progressivism to German Romantics. Her work is beautiful genius, yet I’m personally left trying to understand how these themes, if originated by German Romantics, could have permeated almost the entire United States, the ‘anti-fascist’ American Italian catholics, a number of protestant organizations, the British left, universities the world over, and more in so short a time. The main take-away for me is to recognize that so much of social organization is now directed around the common belief that autonomous individuals are internally flawed and are the sources of conflict by projecting their own internal worlds onto the ‘other’. This belief is their raison d’etre, and there are layers and levels of organization and institution (legitimate and illegitimate) structured around no other cause than such a benevolent, but cooperatively ‘superior’ self-image on the part of the participants in the progressive regime. You, the individual, are viewed by their common agreement and collective sense of security as the ‘enemy’ of humanity, lest they be forced to face themselves and the situation of their own outer reality. Of course, I’ve project a lot on Clare’s work, as I hope you will also do as you come to terms with the historical themes that she has studied and documented. I expect you will find, as I have, that lend you a deeper perspective and understanding of the development of the injustices you suspect or experience in your daily lives and local communities.

    Comment by Mark Leavenworth — August 5, 2013 @ 5:59 pm | Reply

    • There is no mystery about how the German Romantics found an audience in Europe and America. It was social democrats and communists who promulgated their notions of class and national character. Groupiness substituted the invisible but omnipresent “Jew” who was the source of all social evil. The relevant blogs are the main topic of this website.

      Comment by clarelspark — August 5, 2013 @ 7:31 pm | Reply

  6. […] The German Enlightenment of the 18th century was reactionary as it undermined “materialism” with its mystical notion of national character and Zeitgeist or “the spirit of the age.” Society was held together by mystical bonds of blood and soil, but Herder, the chief proponent of “national character” arranged his different societies in a hierarchy that favored Germans and ancient Greeks. See, and […]

    Pingback by What is a materialist? « YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — September 8, 2012 @ 6:47 pm | Reply

  7. […] one of my blogs tracing the impact of multiculturalism in the U.S. (,  I argued that “progressives” in numerous disciplines have been writing history as a subset […]

    Pingback by The Hebraic American Landscape: Sublime or Despotic? « YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — August 14, 2012 @ 2:44 pm | Reply

  8. Prof. Wessell here. I have landed here following your reply to a comment of mine in FrontPage.I was a prof. for German Lit., speciality “Der Geist der Goethe Zeit” (Hermann Korff). One day I noticed a similarity between Marx’s youthful poems and German Romanticism, particularly late Romanticism. Herder and those Sturm-und-Dränger were multi-culti. The Romanticism of “romantic irony” was future oriented in the sense of recreating. My first book on Marx coming from Romanticism is entitled: “Karl Marx, Romantic Irony and the Proletariat.The Mythopoetic Origins of Marxism”. There, beginning with the poems I trace how Marx took up the revolutionary notion of “irony” and, after a mythic journey, located the bear of irony in the proletariat. From there on we have the generation of Marx’s theoretical tools later used in his post-1845 days. The second book is: “Prometheus Bound. The Mythic Structure of Karl Marx’s Scientific Thinking”. I seek to show how, starting with the proletariat as irony, just how Marx did in fact evolve his theoretical, viz., “scientific” thinking rooted in a mythic model. So, I view German Romanticism as the source of multi-culti-ism, but also of a drive to “ironized” the world that is in order to create the world to be. Louisiana State Press is the publisher. Thanks for your tip.

    Comment by Prof. Leonard Wessell — July 31, 2012 @ 10:14 am | Reply

  9. […] presumably differing human types. (For the reception of Boas into progressive race pedagogy, see, especially the enthused melding of Boas with 18th century German Romantics of the Aufklärung by […]

    Pingback by The subtle racism of Edna Ferber and Oscar Hammerstein II « YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — April 24, 2012 @ 10:03 pm | Reply

  10. […] of American identities, defined in terms that rooted cosmopolitans would recognize: see, and […]

    Pingback by Nell Painter’s History of White People « YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — March 31, 2012 @ 9:36 pm | Reply

  11. […] This has had a paradoxical effect on Christianity and secular politics which is present to this day. Clare Spark’s brilliant blog traces today’s Western multiculturalism back to the German …: […]

    Pingback by A brief history of pietism « Churchmouse Campanologist — January 12, 2012 @ 10:06 pm | Reply

  12. […] But there is another one that lays out the precursors to today’s institutionalized MC:  The remedy to MC, I believe, is the teaching of fact-based science, but also the history of […]

    Pingback by Questions for education reformers « YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — May 16, 2011 @ 7:29 pm | Reply

  13. Thanks, Dave, I was fired because the local Communist Party organized against me, on the pretext that there were too many Trotskyists on the air. My friends wrote letters, but did nothing militant in response. I had offended my boss, Manager Jim Berland, by putting my critique of black nationalism in the monthly program guide. Until 1986 when I had passed my oral exams in UCLA graduate school, I knew very little about the history of antisemitism, and have been making up for lost time since then. I congratulate you for ceasing subscription when you did. I understand now that the Foundation is deeply in debt and entirely under the control of the Left or what passes for it nowadays. It is curious that no one has organized a license challenge till now because the stations constantly violate the rules of 501(c)3 organizations, which are supposed to be educational without proselytizing politically. I imagine that they are under the protection of some powerful liberals inside and outside government.
    As for Hobson, my Trotskyist friends are all Leninists, and if Hobson was good enough for Lenin….They are also ardent anti-Zionists. Werner Cohn has a wonderful essay on the internet about Trotskyists, antisemitism, and anti-Zionism.

    Comment by clarespark — July 22, 2010 @ 3:08 am | Reply

  14. clare,
    I am not convinced that every expression of irrationalism bears an antisemitic subtext. Is it your argument that it does? In a similar vein I am not convinced that every expression of discontent with finance capital ia antisemitic. If not every such expression is antisemitic, how to distinguish antisemitic effusions from those that are not?


    Comment by david gansel — July 21, 2010 @ 6:05 pm | Reply

    • Look at specific cases. I used the example of J. A. Hobson here:, quoting from his famous book that influenced Lenin. Also, irrationalism linked to antisemitism is tracked throughout my book Hunting Captain Ahab, for instance in the writing of T. S. Eliot. I am not making a claim that all irrationalists are antisemites, only that there is a pattern in the sources I have been reading for forty years, focusing especially on the populist and progressive movements and the heroes they admired.

      Comment by clarespark — July 21, 2010 @ 6:31 pm | Reply

      • Clare,
        Good response. The blog entry relating to Hobson made your point quite well. I learned something about Hobson of which I was until now unaware. Now my curiosity is aroused. How do your progressive friends, colleagues and correspondents respond to such documentation? It seems, according to your blog about KPFK that your colleagues there responded by firing you. I was a subscriber until the Rodney King riots, but withdrew in response to the urgings of the black consciousness program to “burn out the Koreans.” I imagine that many listeners were likewise offended. How did this effect the finances of KPFK?

        Comment by david gansel — July 22, 2010 @ 2:22 am

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