The Clare Spark Blog

September 26, 2013

Cultural pluralism vs. multiculturalism


[Update: see, for this is a better antidote to the prevailing New Deal phony liberalism that goes by the name of cultural pluralism/multiculturalism.]

Abstract. Multiculturalism imitates cultural/religious pluralism, while undermining it by denying that we can understand persons of different “races” or genders, for each category is self-contained and indecipherable to other groups. Cultural pluralism should be about lots and lots of competing political parties and religions. The very fact that there is no state religion can call into question dogmatic upholders of any one belief system, religious or otherwise. Intellectual diversity can freak out the true believer, no matter how affiliated or indoctrinated.

Several Facebook friends have asked me to define my terms more carefully, because I assume too much when using academic jargon that is unfamiliar to them.  Today’s topic is “cultural pluralism.”

Cultural pluralism is a confusing term because of the word “culture.” Much of this website is devoted to tracing the history of the term “culture” as a substitute for a more materialist analysis of our society and its institutions (i.e., substitute secular for materialist to distinguish me from a dialectical materialist). As currently practiced, cultural pluralism is almost synonymous with “multiculturalism,” which is adhered to by those envisioning a happy cooperating system of grouplets based on race or ethnicity. The multicultural assumption is that the race or ethnicity they name is free of internal divisions or divergent and/or incompatible economic interest. Thus it may be imagined that all “African-Americans” think alike, have the same economic and gender interests, and are “different” from other Americans, even though the (better) Founders and their 19th century admirers imagined that we would all live under the rule of law as distinct individuals endowed with inalienable rights.

A better term than cultural pluralism, not weighed down with “cultural” differences, would be intellectual diversity or “the marketplace of ideas.”

But in order for the marketplace of ideas to work, all participants need to be able to decode propaganda, whether the propaganda is transmitted through buzz words like “family” or through images that compel our allegiance or frighten us.  Herbert Marcuse’s theory of repressive tolerance remains useful, but when first presented, it aroused a firestorm of opposition because Marcuse wanted to ban (most?) all but left-wing speech. Can anything be reclaimed from his theory? My view is that we lose when we allow the opposition to define the terms of the debate.

We are familiar with such tactics today, as Harry Reid and others define the Republican Party as “obstructionists” or “anarchists” or “defiant.” Reid and his ilk could define the competing ideas that motivate different political factions today (for his own party does not think as one), but he cannot do that, for he MUST smear the opposition in order to 1. present a united front of Democrats; and 2. to please the political class that supports him. It is the way things are done in Washington DC today. I could point to some polarizing Republicans as well.

These are hard times for intellectual diversity.  That is why I admire Eva Moskowitz’s notion of having her charter school kids learn how to extract the message of a poem in grade school! Reading comprehension has never been more important. I could add to that the decoding of images.

Another confusing tactic use by authoritarians of either party is the accusation of “power-seeking” as an end in itself.  I have been watching House of Cards on Netflix, and “Francis Underwood” talks to the viewer explaining that he is not out for money but “power.” But in a few episodes later, we learn that he has risen up from Southern “white-trash”.  So his delight in “power” is all about revenge for the snobbery, bullying, and exclusion he undoubtedly experienced as a boy.

Displaced aristocrats (or those working for them) originated the notion of the organic society, or the organic nation, or “races”. For wannabe “aristocrats” today, nothing is so forbidden as reasoned differences of opinion, or as I call it intellectual diversity, including the summoning of “facts.”  For once you open Pandora’s Box, there is no telling what monstrosities will fly out. Better to keep that box shut tight, lest the inquiring mind acquire the legitimacy that it occasionally enjoyed in eighteenth century England, parts of the United States, the Netherlands, and France.  (On Pandora in Greek mythology see

Collage, Clare Spark, early 1990s

Collage, Clare Spark, early 1990s


  1. Reblogged this on YDS: The Clare Spark Blog.

    Comment by clarelspark — May 14, 2018 @ 4:34 pm | Reply

  2. […] Multiculturalism (displacing dangerously enlightened intellectual diversity) is touted as the corrective to such “bourgeois” missteps. In our zeal to correct the errors of the past, are we rehabilitating the notion of “race” but under the rubric of cultural nationalism, which we are expected to “tolerate” in the name of diversity? […]

    Pingback by Multiculturalism and the London terror attack | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — March 23, 2017 @ 8:03 pm | Reply

  3. […] Cultural pluralism vs. multiculturalism […]

    Pingback by Index to multiculturalism blogs | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — June 4, 2016 @ 6:13 pm | Reply

  4. Mrs Spark, you, along with most academics, most all highly paid–one of the many reasons that has produced the outlandish increase in college tuition, most all teaching one or two three unit courses and plenty of time to ponder reality, are trying entirely too hard. While I made a sincere effort to understand your point in this article, “Cultural pluralism v multiculturalism,” and being not a brilliant scholar, still not at all dense or retrograde, I just can’t quite get that point. It has occurred to me before that academics, and also computer nerds, love to use terms and expound on phenomena which have, really, simpler explanations.–

    Cultural pluralism cannot mean anything other than two people in some personal contact or arrangement with some difference in their background, their thinking–this has always existed, it is impossible that it not exist and that is because of the Source of those humans.

    Multiculturalism, on the other hand, is a relatively new concept; it is contrived, forced; it has political control as its prime motivator and goal. It is based on moral relativism and nonjudgmentalism, if that is a word, but you do understand. The elites, the sophisticates, the lib/lefty/”progressive”/Democrat politicians who are pushing globalism, are the enforcers of multiculturalism, and for their benefit entirely, the benefit of control, and under the guise of fairness and justice. But it is bunk and has not worked, is not working, and will not work, no matter how brutally it is enforced–under other conditions I can explain that better. And the irony is that the people who suffer most under this perversion are the ones it is intended to help, because they end up even more confused about their existence and who they are, what their god or gods meant for them.

    Simpler, no?

    On the other hand, we do like the sentiment in this: “These are hard times for intellectual diversity. That is why I admire Eva Moskowitz’s notion of having her charter school kids learn how to extract the message of a poem in grade school! Reading comprehension has never been more important. I could add to that the decoding of images.” We take that as meaning that Moskowitz has discovered that the John Dewey/Benjamin Spock nonsense does not produce successful humans, and so includes criticism as an important part of even very young children’s education at her charter schools. Yes, these are hard times for intellectual diversity–nothing in the public schools except anti-intellectualism, every intellectual work reduced to or related to football and drugs and a couple of other things, but little or no analysis of literature, art, or music, giving only the production of superficial, uninspired people, which is exactly what the elites want, for purposes of control, because they know what is best for those people.

    Comment by Luis Howard — May 28, 2016 @ 9:13 pm | Reply

    • I do not disagree with your take on multiculturalism. See, but you are too hard on Eva Moskowitz. Decoding arty messages is what we do.

      Comment by clarelspark — March 23, 2017 @ 8:29 pm | Reply

      • Actually, I didn’t express myself clearly enough on the subject of Eva Moskowitz’ efforts, because I have read about her and her work and admire that. In the following part of my previous reply, “We take that as meaning that Moskowitz has discovered that the John Dewey/Benjamin Spock nonsense does not produce successful humans, and so includes criticism as an important part of even very young children’s education at her charter schools” I mean that she includes criticism, meaning analysis, in young children’s education, and that is, obviously, a positive work, an unusual work, within the American “education” system, especially in New York.

        Comment by Luis Howard — March 24, 2017 @ 5:20 am

  5. […] women’s vote will go to the pluralists who may see a broader scope for women in the world: see and […]

    Pingback by The “women’s vote” | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — May 6, 2016 @ 8:14 pm | Reply

  6. […] is to defend scientific method, political pluralism (on “cultural pluralism” see, and creative freedom against all authoritarian tendencies, whether these emanate from the Left, […]

    Pingback by Marx, anarchist rivals, and our enigmatic President | YDS: The Clare Spark Blog — September 29, 2013 @ 10:02 pm | Reply

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URI

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

Create a free website or blog at

%d bloggers like this: